A Commentary, Critical, Practical, and Explanatory on the Old and New Testaments, by Robert Jamieson, A.R. Fausset and David Brown  at sacred-texts.com
mic 5:1THE CALAMITIES WHICH PRECEDE MESSIAH'S ADVENT. HIS KINGDOM, CONQUEST OF JACOB'S FOES, AND BLESSING UPON HIS PEOPLE. (Mic 5:1-15)
gather thyself in troops--that is, thou shalt do so, to resist the enemy. Lest the faithful should fall into carnal security because of the previous promises, he reminds them of the calamities which are to precede the prosperity.
daughter of troops--Jerusalem is so called on account of her numerous troops.
he hath laid siege--the enemy hath.
they shall smite the judge of Israel with a rod upon the cheek--the greatest of insults to an Oriental. Zedekiah, the judge (or king, Amo 2:3) of Israel, was loaded with insults by the Chaldeans; so also the other princes and judges (Lam 3:30). HENGSTENBERG thinks the expression, "the judge," marks a time when no king of the house of David reigned. The smiting on the cheek of other judges of Israel was a type of the same indignity offered to Him who nevertheless is the Judge, not only of Israel, but also of the world, and who is "from everlasting" (Mic 5:2; Isa 50:6; Mat 26:67; Mat 27:30).
mic 5:2Beth-lehem Ephratah-- (Gen 48:7), or, Beth-lehem Judah; so called to distinguish it from Beth-lehem in Zebulun. It is a few miles southwest of Jerusalem. Beth-lehem means "the house of bread"; Ephratah means "fruitful": both names referring to the fertility of the region.
though thou be little among--though thou be scarcely large enough to be reckoned among, &c. It was insignificant in size and population; so that in Jos 15:21, &c., it is not enumerated among the cities of Judah; nor in the list in Neh 11:25, &c. Under Rehoboam it became a city: Ch2 11:6, "He built Beth-lehem." Mat 2:6 seems to contradict Micah, "thou art not the least," But really he, by an independent testimony of the Spirit, confirms the prophet, Little in worldly importance, thou art not least (that is, far from least, yea, the very greatest) among the thousands, of princes of Judah, in the spiritual significance of being the birthplace of Messiah (Joh 7:42). God chooses the little things of the world to eclipse in glory its greatest things (Jdg 6:15; Joh 1:46; Co1 1:27-28). The low state of David's line when Messiah was born is also implied here.
thousands--Each tribe was divided into clans or "thousands" (each thousand containing a thousand families), which had their several heads or "princes"; hence in Mat 2:6 it is quoted "princes," substantially the same as in Micah, and authoritatively explained in Matthew. It is not so much this thousand that is preferred to the other thousands of Judah, but the Governor or Chief Prince out of it, who is preferred to the governors of all the other thousands. It is called a "town" (rather in the Greek, "village"), Joh 7:42; though scarcely containing a thousand inhabitants, it is ranked among the "thousands" or larger divisions of the tribe, because of its being the cradle of David's line, and of the Divine Son of David. Moses divided the people into thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens, with their respective "rulers" (Exo 18:25; compare Sa1 10:19).
unto me--unto God the Father (Luk 1:32): to fulfil all the Father's will and purpose from eternity. So the Son declares (Psa 2:7; Psa 40:7-8; Joh 4:34); and the Father confirms it (Mat 3:17; Mat 12:18, compare with Isa 42:1). God's glory is hereby made the ultimate end of redemption.
ruler--the "Shiloh," "Prince of peace," "on whose shoulders the government is laid" (Gen 49:10; Isa 9:6). In Sa2 23:3, "He that ruleth over men must be just," the same Hebrew word is employed; Messiah alone realizes David's ideal of a ruler. Also in Jer 30:21, "their governor shall proceed from the midst of them"; answering closely to "out of thee shall come forth the ruler," here (compare Isa 11:1-4).
goings forth . . . from everlasting--The plain antithesis of this clause, to "come forth out of thee" (from Beth-lehem), shows that the eternal generation of the Son is meant. The terms convey the strongest assertion of infinite duration of which the Hebrew language is capable (compare Psa 90:2; Pro 8:22-23; Joh 1:1). Messiah's generation as man coming forth unto God to do His will on earth is from Beth-lehem; but as Son of God, His goings forth are from everlasting. The promise of the Redeemer at first was vaguely general (Gen 3:15). Then the Shemitic division of mankind is declared as the quarter in which He was to be looked for (Gen 9:26-27); then it grows clearer, defining the race and nation whence the Deliverer should come, namely, the seed of Abraham, the Jews (Gen 12:3); then the particular tribe, Judah (Gen 49:10); then the family, that of David (Psa 89:19-20); then the very town of His birth, here. And as His coming drew nigh, the very parentage (Mat. 1:1-17; Luk 1:26-35; Luk 2:1-7); and then all the scattered rays of prophecy concentrate in Jesus, as their focus (Heb 1:1-2).
mic 5:3"Therefore (because of His settled plan) will God give up to their foes His people Israel, until," &c.
she which travaileth hath brought forth--namely, "the virgin" mother, mentioned by Micah's contemporary, Isa 7:14. Zion "in travail" (Mic 4:9-10) answers to the virgin in travail of Messiah. Israel's deliverance from her long travail-pains of sorrow will synchronize with the appearance oÅ Messiah as her Redeemer (Rom 11:26) in the last days, as the Church's spiritual deliverance synchronized with the virgin's giving birth to Him at His first advent. The ancient Church's travail-like waiting for Messiah is represented by the virgin's travail. Hence, both may be meant. It cannot be restricted to the Virgin Mary: for Israel is still "given up," though Messiah has been "brought forth" almost two thousand years ago. But the Church's throes are included, which are only to be ended when Christ, having been preached for a witness to all nations, shall at last appear as the Deliverer of Jacob, and when the times of the Gentiles shall be fulfilled, and Israel as a nation shall be born in a day (Isa 66:7-11; Luk 21:24; Rev 12:1-2, Rev 12:4; compare Rom 8:22).
the remnant of his brethren shall return unto the children of Israel--(Compare Mic 4:7). The remainder of the Israelites dispersed in foreign lands shall return to join their countrymen in Canaan. The Hebrew for "unto" is, literally, "upon," implying superaddition to those already gathered.
mic 5:4he shall stand--that is, persevere: implying the endurance of His kingdom [CALVIN]. Rather, His sedulous care and pastoral circumspection, as a shepherd stands erect to survey and guard His flock on every side (Isa 61:5) [MAURER].
feed--that is, rule: as the Greek word similarly in Mat 2:6, Margin, means both "feed" and "rule" (Isa 40:11; Isa 49:10; Eze 34:23; compare Sa2 5:2; Sa2 7:8).
in the majesty of the name of the Lord--possessing the majesty of all Jehovah's revealed attributes ("name") (Isa 11:2; Phi 2:6, Phi 2:9; Heb 2:7-9).
his God--God is "His God" in a oneness of relation distinct from the sense in which God is our God (Joh 20:17).
they shall abide--the Israelites ("they," namely, the returning remnant and the "children of Israel previously in Canaan) shall dwell in permanent security and prosperity (Mic 4:4; Isa 14:30).
unto the ends of the earth-- (Mic 4:1; Psa 72:8; Zac 9:10).
mic 5:5this man--in Hebrew simply "This." The One just mentioned; He and He alone. Emphatical for Messiah (compare Gen 5:29).
the peace--the fountainhead of peace between God and man, between Israel and Israel's justly offended God (Gen 49:10; Isa 9:6; Eph 2:14, Eph 2:17; Col 1:20), and, as the consequence, the fountain of "peace on earth," where heretofore all is strife (Mic 4:3; Hos 2:18; Zac 9:10; Luk 2:14).
the Assyrian--Being Israel's most powerful foe at that time, Assyria is made the representative of all the foes of Israel in all ages, who shall receive their final destruction at Messiah's appearing (Eze. 38:1-23).
seven shepherds, and eight--"Seven" expresses perfection; "seven and eight" is an idiom for a full and sufficient number (Job 5:19; Pro 6:16; Ecc 11:2).
principal men--literally, "anointed (humble) men" (Psa 62:9), such as the apostles were. Their anointing, or consecration and qualification to office, was by the Holy Spirit [CALVIN] (Jo1 2:20, Jo1 2:27). "Princes" also were anointed, and they are mentioned as under Messiah (Isa 32:1). English Version therefore gives the probable sense.
mic 5:6waste--literally, "eat up": following up the metaphor of "shepherds" (compare Num 22:4; Jer 6:3).
land of Nimrod--Babylon (Mic 4:10; Gen 10:10); or, including Assyria also, to which he extended his borders (Gen 10:11).
in the entrances--the passes into Assyria (Kg2 3:21). The Margin and JEROME, misled by a needless attention to the parallelism, "with the sword," translate, "with her own naked swords"; as in Psa 55:21 the Hebrew is translated. But "in the entrances" of Assyria, answers to, "within our borders." As the Assyrians invade our borders, so shall their own borders or "entrances" be invaded.
he . . . he--Messiah shall deliver us, when the Assyrian shall come.
mic 5:7remnant of Jacob--already mentioned in Mic 5:3. It in comparative smallness stands in antithesis to the "many people." Though Israel be but a remnant amidst many nations after her restoration, yet she shall exercise the same blessed influence in quickening them spiritually that the small imperceptible dew exercises in refreshing the grass (Deu 32:2; Psa 72:6; Psa 110:3). The influence of the Jews restored from Babylon in making many Gentile proselytes is an earnest of a larger similar effect hereafter (Isa 66:19; Zac 8:13).
from the Lord--Israel's restoration and the consequent conversion of the Gentiles are solely of grace.
tarrieth not for man--entirely God's work, as independent of human contrivance as the dew and rains that fertilize the soil.
mic 5:8as a lion--In Mic 5:7 Israel's benignant influence on the nations is described; but here her vengeance on the godless hosts who assail her (Isa 66:15-16, Isa 66:19, Isa 66:24; Zac 12:3, Zac 12:6, Zac 12:8-9; Zac 14:17-18). Judah will be "as as lion," not in respect to its cruelty, but in its power of striking terror into all opponents. Under the Maccabees, the Jews acquired Idumea, Samaria, and parts of the territory of Ammon and Moab [GROTIUS]. But this was only the earnest of their future glory on their coming restoration.
mic 5:9Thine hand shall be lifted up--In Isa 26:11 it is Jehovah's hand that is lifted up; here Israel's as Mic 5:8 implies, just as "Zion" is addressed and directed to "beat in pieces many people" (Mic 4:13; compare Isa 54:15, Isa 54:17). For Israel's foes are Jehovah's foes. When her hand is said to be lifted up, it is Jehovah's hand that strikes the foe by her (compare Exo 13:9, with Exo 14:8).
mic 5:10cut off thy horses . . . chariots--namely, those used for the purposes of war. Israel had been forbidden the use of cavalry, or to go to Egypt for horses (Deu 17:16), lest they should trust in worldly forces, rather than in God (Psa 20:7). Solomon had disregarded this command (Kg1 10:26, Kg1 10:28). Hereafter, saith God, I will remove these impediments to the free course of My grace: horses, chariots, &c., on which ye trust. The Church will never be safe, till she is stripped of all creature trusts, and rests on Jehovah alone [CALVIN]. The universal peace given by God shall cause warlike instruments to be needless. He will cut them off from Israel (Zac 9:10); as she will cut them off from Babylon, the representative of the nations (Jer 50:37; Jer 51:21).
mic 5:11cut off . . . cities . . . strongholds--such as are fortified for war. In that time of peace, men shall live in unwalled villages (Eze 38:11; compare Jer 23:6; Jer 49:31; Zac 2:8).
mic 5:12witchcrafts out of thine hand--that is, which thou now usest.
mic 5:13graven images . . . cut off--(Compare Isa 2:8, Isa 2:18-21; Isa 30:22; Zac 13:2).
mic 5:14groves . . . cities--The "groves" are the idolatrous symbol of Astarte (Deu 16:21; Kg2 21:7). "Cities" being parallel to "groves," must mean cities in or near which such idolatrous groves existed. Compare "city of the house of Baal" (Kg2 10:25), that is, a portion of the city sacred to Baal.
mic 5:15vengeance . . . such as they have not heard--or, as the Hebrew order favors, "the nations that have not hearkened to My warnings." So the Septuagint (Psa 149:7).