A Commentary, Critical, Practical, and Explanatory on the Old and New Testaments, by Robert Jamieson, A.R. Fausset and David Brown  at sacred-texts.com
luk 19:2ZACCHEUS THE PUBLICAN. (Luk 19:1-10)
chief among the publicans--farming a considerable district, with others under him.
rich--Ill-gotten riches some of it certainly was. (See on Luk 19:8.)
luk 19:3who he was--what sort of person. Curiosity then was his only motive, though his determination not to be baulked was overruled for more than he sought.
luk 19:4sycamore--the Egyptian fig, with leaves like the mulberry.
luk 19:5looked up,--in the full knowledge of who was in the tree, and preparatory to addressing him.
Zaccheus--whom he had never seen in the flesh, nor probably heard of. "He calleth His own sheep by name and leadeth them out" (Joh 10:3).
make haste, and come down--to which he literally responded--"he made haste and came down."
for to-day, &c.--Our Lord invites Himself, and in "royal" style, which waits not for invitations, but as the honor is done to the subject, not the sovereign, announces the purpose of royalty to partake of the subject's hospitalities. Manifestly our Lord speaks as knowing how the privilege would be appreciated.
to-day . . . abide--(Compare Joh 1:39), probably over night.
luk 19:6joyfully--Whence this so sudden "joy" in the cold bosom of an avaricious publican? The internal revolution was as perfect as instantaneous. "He spake and it was done." "Then shall the lame man leap as an hart, and the tongue of the dumb sing" (Isa 35:6).
luk 19:7to be guest--or lodge: something more than "eating with" such (Luk 15:2).
a sinner--that was one but a minute ago, but now is not. This mighty change, however, was all unknown to them. But they shall know it presently. "Sinner" would refer both to his office, vile in the eyes of a Jew, and to his character, which it is evident was not good.
luk 19:8stood--before all.
said unto the Lord, Behold, Lord--Mark how frequently Luke uses this title, and always where lordly authority, dignity, or power is intended.
if I have--that is, "so far as I have," for evidently the "if" is so used (as in Phi 4:8).
taken by false accusation--defrauded, overcharged (Luk 3:12-13).
fourfold--The Roman law required this; the Jewish law, but the principal and a fifth more (Num 5:7). There was no demand made for either; but, as if to revenge himself on his hitherto reigning sin (see on Joh 20:28), and to testify the change he had experienced, besides surrendering the half of his fair gains to the poor, he voluntarily determines to give up all that was ill-gotten, quadrupled. He gratefully addressed this to the "Lord," to whom he owed the wonderful change.
luk 19:9Jesus said unto him--but also before all.
This day, &c.--memorable saying! Salvation already come, but not a day old.
to this house--so expressed probably to meet the taunt, "He is gone to be guest," &c. The house is no longer polluted; it is now fit to receive Me. But salvation to a house is an exceedingly precious idea, expressing the new air that would henceforth breathe in it, and the new impulses from its head which would reach its members (Psa 118:15; Act 16:15-16, Act 16:31).
son of Abraham--He was that by birth, but here it means a partaker of his faith, being mentioned as the sufficient explanation of salvation having come to him.
luk 19:10lost--and such "lost" ones as this Zaccheus. (See on Luk 15:32.) What encouragement is there in this narrative to hope for unexpected conversions?
luk 19:12PARABLE OF THE POUNDS. (Luke 19:11-27)
a far country--said to put down the notion that He was just on His way to set up His kingdom, and to inaugurate it by His personal presence.
to receive . . . a kingdom--be invested with royalty; as when Herod went to Rome and was there made king; a striking expression of what our Lord went away for and received, "sitting down at the right hand of the Majesty on high."
to return--at His second coming.
luk 19:13Occupy--"negotiate," "do business," with the resources entrusted.
luk 19:14his citizens--His proper subjects; meaning the Jews, who expressly repudiating our Lord's claims said, "We have no king but CÃ&brvbr;sar" (Joh 19:15). In Christendom, these correspond to infidel rejecters of Christianity, as distinguished from professed Christians.
luk 19:15(See on Mat 25:19-29.)
ten . . . five cities--different degrees of future gracious reward, proportioned to the measure of present fidelity.
luk 19:27bring hither, &c.--(Compare Sa1 15:32-33). Referring to the awful destruction of Jerusalem, but pointing to the final destruction of all that are found in open rebellion against Christ.
luk 19:29CHRIST'S TRIUMPHANT ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM AND TEARS OVER IT. (Luke 19:28-44)
Bethphage--"house of figs," a village which with Bethany lay along the further side of Mount Olivet, east of Jerusalem.
luk 19:30whereon, &c.--(See on Joh 19:41).
luk 19:31the Lord hath need, &c.--He both knew all and had the key of the human heart. (See on Luk 19:5.) Perhaps the owner was a disciple.
luk 19:35set Jesus on--He allowing this, as befitting the state He was for the first and only time assuming.
luk 19:37whole multitude, &c.--The language here is very grand, intended to express a burst of admiration far wider and deeper than ever had been witnessed before.
luk 19:38Blessed be the King, &c.--Mark (Mar 11:9-10) more fully, "Hosanna," that is, "Save now," the words of Psa 118:25, which were understood to refer to Messiah; and so they add, "to the Son of David, blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord (Psa 118:26), Hosanna in the highest." This was the very loftiest style in which He could be saluted as the promised Deliverer.
peace, &c.--(See on Luk 2:13-14).
luk 19:40the stones, &c.--Hitherto the Lord had discouraged all demonstrations in His favor; latterly He had begun an opposite course; on this one occasion He seems to yield His whole soul to the wide and deep acclaim with a mysterious satisfaction, regarding it as so necessary a part of the regal dignity in which as Messiah He for this last time entered the city, that if not offered by the vast multitude, it would have been wrung out of the stones rather than be withheld (Hab 2:11).
luk 19:41when beheld . . . wept--Compare Lam 3:51, "Mine eye affecteth mine heart"; the heart again affecting the eye. Under this sympathetic law of the relation of mind and body, Jesus, in His beautiful, tender humanity, was constituted even as we. What a contrast to the immediately preceding profound joy! He yielded Himself alike freely to both. (See on Mat 23:37.)
luk 19:42at least in this, &c.--even at this moving moment. (See on Luk 13:9.)
thy peace--thinking perhaps of the name of the city. (Heb 7:2) [WEBSTER and WILKINSON]. How much is included in this word!
now . . . hid--It was His among His last open efforts to "gather them," but their eyes were judicially closed.
luk 19:43a trench--a rampart; first of wood, and when this was burnt, a built wall, four miles in circuit, built in three days--so determined were they. This "cut off all hope of escape," and consigned the city to unparalleled horrors. (See JOSEPHUS, Wars of the Jews, 6.2; 12.3,4.) All here predicted was with dreadful literally fulfilled.
luk 19:45SECOND CLEANSING OF THE TEMPLE AND SUBSEQUENT TEACHING. (Luk 19:45-48)
As the first cleansing was on His first visit to Jerusalem (Joh 2:13-22), so this second cleansing was on His last.
den of thieves--banded together for plunder, reckless of principle. The mild term "house of merchandise," used on the former occasion, was now unsuitable.
luk 19:47sought--continued seeking, that is, daily, as He taught.
luk 19:48were very attentive to hear him--hung upon His words.