A Commentary, Critical, Practical, and Explanatory on the Old and New Testaments, by Robert Jamieson, A.R. Fausset and David Brown  at sacred-texts.com
job 31:1(Job 31:1-40)
Job proceeds to prove that he deserved a better lot. As in the twenty-ninth chapter, he showed his uprightness as an emir, or magistrate in public life, so in this chapter he vindicates his character in private life.
He asserts his guarding against being allured to sin by his senses.
think--rather, "cast a (lustful) look." He not merely did not so, but put it out of the question by covenanting with his eyes against leading him into temptation (Pro 6:25; Mat 5:28).
job 31:2Had I let my senses tempt me to sin, "what portion (would there have been to me, that is, must I have expected) from (literally, of) God above, and what inheritance from (literally, of) the Almighty," &c. [MAURER] (Job 20:29; Job 27:13).
job 31:3Answer to the question in Job 31:2.
job 31:4Doth not he see? &c.--Knowing this, I could only have expected "destruction" (Job 31:3), had I committed this sin (Pro 5:21).
job 31:5Job's abstinence from evil deeds.
vanity--that is, falsehood (Psa 12:2).
job 31:6Parenthetical. Translate: "Oh, that God would weigh me . . . then would He know," &c.
job 31:7Connected with Job 31:6.
the way--of God (Job 23:11; Jer 5:5). A godly life.
heart . . . after . . . eyes--if my heart coveted, what my eyes beheld (Ecc 11:9; Jos 7:21).
hands-- (Psa 24:4).
job 31:8Apodosis to Job 31:5, Job 31:7; the curses which he imprecates on himself, if he had done these things (Lev 26:16; Amo 9:14; Psa 128:2).
offspring--rather, "what I plant," my harvests.
job 31:9Job asserts his innocence of adultery.
deceived--hath let itself be seduced (Pro 7:8; Gen 39:7-12).
laid wait--until the husband went out.
job 31:10grind--turn the handmill. Be the most abject slave and concubine (Isa 47:2; Sa2 12:11).
job 31:11In the earliest times punished with death (Gen 38:24). So in later times (Deu 22:22). Heretofore he had spoken only of sins against conscience; now, one against the community, needing the cognizance of the judge.
job 31:12(Pro 6:27-35; Pro 8:6-23, Pro 8:26-27). No crime more provokes God to send destruction as a consuming fire; none so desolates the soul.
job 31:13Job affirms his freedom from unfairness towards his servants, from harshness and oppression towards the needy.
despise the cause--refused to do them justice.
job 31:14Parenthetical; the reason why Job did not despise the cause of his servants. Translate: What then (had I done so) could I have done, when God arose (to call me to account); and when He visited (came to enquire), what could I have answered Him?
job 31:15Slaveholders try to defend themselves by maintaining the original inferiority of the slave. But Mal 2:10; Act 17:26; Eph 6:9 make the common origin of masters and servants the argument for brotherly love being shown by the former to the latter.
job 31:16fail--in the vain expectation of relief (Job 11:20).
job 31:17Arabian rules of hospitality require the stranger to be helped first, and to the best.
job 31:18Parenthetical: asserting that he did the contrary to the things in Job 31:16-17.
guided her--namely, the widow, by advice and protection. On this and "a father," see Job 29:16.
job 31:19perish--that is, ready to perish (Job 29:13).
job 31:20loins--The parts of the body benefited by Job are poetically described as thanking him; the loins before naked, when clad by me, wished me every blessing.
job 31:21when--that is, "because."
I saw--that I might calculate on the "help" of a powerful party in the court of justice--("gate"), if I should be summoned by the injured fatherless.
job 31:22Apodosis to Job 31:13, Job 31:16-17, Job 31:19-21. If I had done those crimes, I should have made a bad use of my influence ("my arm," figuratively, Job 31:21): therefore, if I have done them let my arm (literally) suffer. Job alludes to Eliphaz' charge (Job 22:9). The first "arm" is rather the shoulder. The second "arm" is the forearm.
from the bone--literally, "a reed"; hence the upper arm, above the elbow.
job 31:23For--that is, the reason why Job guarded against such sins. Fear of God, though he could escape man's judgment (Gen 39:9). UMBREIT more spiritedly translates, Yea, destruction and terror from God might have befallen me (had I done so): mere fear not being the motive.
endure--I could have availed nothing against it.
job 31:24Job asserts his freedom from trust in money (Ti1 6:17). Here he turns to his duty towards God, as before he had spoken of his duty towards himself and his neighbor. Covetousness is covert idolatry, as it transfers the heart from the Creator to the creature (Col 3:5). In Job 31:26-27 he passes to overt idolatry.
job 31:26If I looked unto the sun (as an object of worship) because he shined; or to the moon because she walked, &c. Sabaism (from tsaba, "the heavenly hosts") was the earliest form of false worship. God is hence called in contradistinction, "Lord of Sabaoth." The sun, moon, and stars, the brightest objects in nature, and seen everywhere, were supposed to be visible representatives of the invisible God. They had no temples, but were worshipped on high places and roofs of houses (Eze 8:16; Deu 4:19; Kg2 23:5, Kg2 23:11). The Hebrew here for "sun" is light. Probably light was worshipped as the emanation from God, before its embodiments, the sun, &c. This worship prevailed in Chaldea; wherefore Job's exemption from the idolatry of his neighbors was the more exemplary. Our "Sun-day," "Mon-day," or Moon-day, bear traces of Sabaism.
job 31:27enticed--away from God to idolatry.
kissed . . . hand--"adoration," literally means this. In worshipping they used to kiss the hand, and then throw the kiss, as it were, towards the object of worship (Kg1 19:18; Hos 13:2).
job 31:28The Mosaic law embodied subsequently the feeling of the godly from the earliest times against idolatry, as deserving judicial penalties: being treason against the Supreme King (Deu 13:9; Deu 17:2-7; Eze 8:14-18). This passage therefore does not prove Job to have been subsequent to Moses.
job 31:29lifted up myself--in malicious triumph (Pro 17:5; Pro 24:17; Psa 7:4).
job 31:30mouth--literally, "palate." (See on Job 6:30).
wishing--literally, "so as to demand his (my enemy's) soul," that is, "life by a curse." This verse parenthetically confirms Job 31:30. Job in the patriarchal age of the promise, anterior to the law, realizes the Gospel spirit, which was the end of the law (compare Lev 19:18; Deu 23:6, with Mat 5:43-44).
job 31:31That is, Job's household said, Oh, that we had Job's enemy to devour, we cannot rest satisfied till we have! But Job refrained from even wishing revenge (Sa1 26:8; Sa2 16:9-10). So Jesus Christ (Luk 9:54-55). But, better (see Job 31:32), translated, "Who can show (literally, give) the man who was not satisfied with the flesh (meat) provided by Job?" He never let a poor man leave his gate without giving him enough to eat.
job 31:32traveller--literally, "way," that is, wayfarers; so expressed to include all of every kind (Sa2 12:4).
job 31:33Adam--translated by UMBREIT, "as men do" (Hos 6:7, where see Margin). But English Version is more natural. The very same word for "hiding" is used in Gen 3:8, Gen 3:10, of Adam hiding himself from God. Job elsewhere alludes to the flood. So he might easily know of the fall, through the two links which connect Adam and Abraham (about Job's time), namely, Methuselah and Shem. Adam is representative of fallen man's propensity to concealment (Pro 28:13). It was from God that Job did not "hide his iniquity in his bosom," as on the contrary it was from God that "Adam" hid in his lurking-place. This disproves the translation, "as men"; for it is from their fellow men that "men" are chiefly anxious to hide their real character as guilty. MAGEE, to make the comparison with Adam more exact, for my "bosom" translates, "lurking-place."
job 31:34Rather, the apodosis to Job 31:33, "Then let me be fear-stricken before a great multitude, let the contempt, &c., let me keep silence (the greatest disgrace to a patriot, heretofore so prominent in assemblies), and not go out," &c. A just retribution that he who hides his sin from God, should have it exposed before man (Sa2 12:12). But Job had not been so exposed, but on the contrary was esteemed in the assemblies of the "tribes"--("families"); a proof, he implies, that God does not hold him guilty of hiding sin (Job 24:16, contrast with Job 29:21-25).
job 31:35Job returns to his wish (Job 13:22; Job 19:23). Omit "is"; "Behold my sign," that is, my mark of subscription to the statements just given in my defense: the mark of signature was originally a cross; and hence the letter Tau or T. Translate, also "Oh, that the Almighty," &c. He marks "God" as the "One" meant in the first clause.
adversary--that is, he who contends with me, refers also to God. The vagueness is designed to express "whoever it be that judicially opposes me"--the Almighty if it be He.
had written a book--rather, "would write down his charge."
job 31:36So far from hiding the adversary's "answer" or "charge" through fear,
I would take it on my shoulders--as a public honor (Isa 9:6).
a crown--not a mark of shame, but of distinction (Isa 62:3).
job 31:37A good conscience imparts a princely dignity before man and free assurance in approaching God. This can be realized, not in Job's way (Job 42:5-6); but only through Jesus Christ (Heb 10:22).
job 31:38Personification. The complaints of the unjustly ousted proprietors are transferred to the lands themselves (Job 31:20; Gen 4:10; Hab 2:11). If I have unjustly acquired lands (Job 24:2; Isa 5:8).
furrows--The specification of these makes it likely, he implies in this, "If I paid not the laborer for tillage"; as Job 31:39, "If I paid him not for gathering in the fruits." Thus of the four clauses in Job 31:38-39, the first refers to the same subject as the fourth, the second is connected with the third by introverted parallelism. Compare Jam 5:4, which plainly alludes to this passage: compare "Lord of Sabaoth" with Job 31:26 here.
job 31:39lose . . . life--not literally, but "harassed to death"; until he gave me up his land gratis [MAURER]; as in Jdg 16:16; "suffered him to languish" by taking away his means of living [UMBREIT] (Kg1 21:19).
job 31:40thistles--or brambles, thorns.
cockle--literally, "noxious weeds."
The words . . . ended--that is, in the controversy with the friends. He spoke in the book afterwards, but not to them. At Job 31:37 would be the regular conclusion in strict art. But Job 31:38-40 are naturally added by one whose mind in agitation recurs to its sense of innocence, even after it has come to the usual stopping point; this takes away the appearance of rhetorical artifice. Hence the transposition by EICHORN of Job 31:38-40 to follow Job 31:25 is quite unwarranted.