A Commentary, Critical, Practical, and Explanatory on the Old and New Testaments, by Robert Jamieson, A.R. Fausset and David Brown  at sacred-texts.com
jer 11:2EPITOME OF THE COVENANT FOUND IN THE TEMPLE IN JOSIAH'S REIGN. JUDAH'S REVOLT FROM IT, AND GOD'S CONSEQUENT WRATH. (Jer. 11:1-23)
this covenant--alluding to the book of the law (Deu 31:26) found in the temple by Hilkiah the high priest, five years after Jeremiah's call to the prophetic office (2Ki. 22:8-23:25).
Hear ye--Others besides Jeremiah were to promulgate God's will to the people; it was the duty of the priests to read the law to them (Mal 2:7).
jer 11:3(Deu 27:26; Gal 3:10).
jer 11:4in the day--that is, when. The Sinaitic covenant was made some time after the exodus, but the two events are so connected as to be viewed as one.
iron furnace-- (Deu 4:20; Kg1 8:51). "Furnace" expresses the searching ordeal; "iron," the long duration of it. The furnace was of earth, not of iron (Psa 12:6); a furnace, in heat and duration enough to melt even iron. God's deliverance of them from such an ordeal aggravates their present guilt.
do them--namely, the words of the covenant (Jer 11:3).
so, &c.-- (Lev 26:3, Lev 26:12).
jer 11:5oath-- (Psa 105:9-10).
a land flowing with milk and honey--(See on Num 14:8).
as it is this day--These are the concluding words of God to the Israelites when formerly brought out of Egypt, "Obey . . . that I may at this time make good the promise I made to your fathers, to give," &c. [MAURER]. English Version makes the words apply to Jeremiah's time, "As ye know at this time, that God's promise has been fulfilled," namely, in Israel's acquisition of Canaan.
So be it--Hebrew, Amen. Taken from Deu 27:15-26. Jeremiah hereby solemnly concurs in the justice of the curses pronounced there (see Jer 11:3).
jer 11:6Jeremiah was to take a prophetic tour throughout Judah, to proclaim everywhere the denunciations in the book of the law found in the temple.
Hear . . . do-- (Rom 2:13; Jam 1:22).
jer 11:7rising early-- (Jer 7:13).
jer 11:8imagination--rather, "stubbornness."
will bring--The words, "even unto this day" (Jer 11:7), confirm English Version rather than the rendering of ROSENMULLER: "I brought upon them."
words--threats (Jer 11:3; Deu 27:15-26).
jer 11:9conspiracy--a deliberate combination against God and against Josiah's reformation. Their idolatry is not the result of a hasty impulse (Psa 83:5; Eze 22:25).
jer 11:11cry unto me--contrasted with "cry unto the gods," (Jer 11:12).
not hearken-- (Psa 18:41; Pro 1:28; Isa 1:15; Mic 3:4).
jer 11:12cry unto the gods . . . not save-- (Deu 32:37-38). Compare this verse and beginning of Jer 11:13; Jer 2:28.
in the time of their trouble--that is, calamity (Jer 2:27).
jer 11:13shameful thing--Hebrew, "shame," namely, the idol, not merely shameful, but the essence of all that is shameful (Jer 3:24; Hos 9:10), which will bring shame and confusion on yourselves [CALVIN].
jer 11:14There is a climax of guilt which admits of no further intercessory prayer (Exo 32:10, in the Chaldee version, "leave off praying"; Jer 7:16; Sa1 16:1; Sa1 15:35; Jo1 5:16). Our mind should be at one with God in all that He is doing, even in the rejection of the reprobate.
for their trouble--on account of their trouble. Other manuscripts read, "in the time of their trouble" a gloss from Jer 11:12.
jer 11:15my beloved--My elect people, Judea; this aggravates their ingratitude (Jer 12:7).
lewdness with many-- (Eze 16:25). Rather, "that great (or, manifold) enormity"; literally, "the enormity, the manifold"; namely, their idolatry, which made their worship of God in the temple a mockery (compare Jer 7:10; Eze 23:39) [HENDERSON].
holy flesh-- (Hag 2:12-14; Tit 1:15), namely, the sacrifices, which, through the guilt of the Jews, were no longer holy, that is, acceptable to God. The sacrifices on which they relied will, therefore, no longer protect them. Judah is represented as a priest's wife, who, by adultery, has forfeited her share in the flesh of the sacrifices, and yet boasts of her prerogative at the very same time [HORSLEY].
when thou doest evil--literally, "when thy evil" (is at hand). PISCATOR translates, "When thy calamity is at hand (according to God's threats), thou gloriest" (against God, instead of humbling thyself). English Version is best (compare Pro 2:14).
jer 11:16called thy name--made thee.
olive-- (Psa 52:8; Rom 11:17). The "olive" is chosen to represent the adoption of Judah by the free grace of God, as its oil is the image of richness (compare Psa 23:5; Psa 104:15).
with . . . noise of . . . tumult--or, "at the noise," &c., namely, at the tumult of the invading army (Isa 13:4) [MAURER]. Or, rather, "with the sound of a mighty voice," namely, that of God, that is, the thunder; thus there is no confusion of metaphors. The tree stricken with lightning has "fire kindled upon it, and the branches are broken," at one and the same time [HOUBIGANT].
jer 11:17that planted thee-- (Jer 2:21; Isa 5:2).
against themselves--The sinner's sin is to his own hurt (see on Jer 7:19).
jer 11:18Jeremiah here digresses to notice the attempt on his life plotted by his townsmen of Anathoth. He had no suspicion of it, until Jehovah revealed it to him (Jer 12:6).
the Lord . . . thou--The change of person from the third to the second accords with the excited feelings of the prophet.
then--when I was in peril of my life.
their doings--those of the men of Anathoth. His thus alluding to them, before he has mentioned their name, is due to his excitement.
jer 11:19lamb--literally, a "pet lamb," such as the Jews often had in their houses, for their children to play with; and the Arabs still have (Sa2 12:3). His own familiar friends had plotted against the prophet. The language is exactly the same as that applied to Messiah (Isa 53:7). Each prophet and patriarch exemplified in his own person some one feature or more in the manifold attributes and sufferings of the Messiah to come; just as the saints have done since His coming (Gal 2:20; Phi 3:10; Col 1:24). This adapted both the more experimentally to testify of Christ.
devices-- (Jer 18:18).
tree with . . . fruit--literally, "in its fruit" or "food," that is, when it is in fruit. Proverbial, to express the destruction of cause and effect together. The man is the tree; his teaching, the fruit. Let us destroy the prophet and his prophecies; namely, those threatening destruction to the nation, which offended them. Compare Mat 7:17, which also refers to prophets and their doctrines.
jer 11:20triest . . . heart-- (Rev 2:23).
revealed--committed my cause. Jeremiah's wish for vengeance was not personal but ministerial, and accorded with God's purpose revealed to him against the enemies alike of God and of His servant (Psa 37:34; Psa 54:7; Psa 112:8; Psa 118:7).
jer 11:21Prophesy not-- (Isa 30:10; Amo 2:12; Mic 2:6). If Jeremiah had not uttered his denunciatory predictions, they would not have plotted against him. None were more bitter than his own fellow townsmen. Compare the conduct of the Nazarites towards Jesus of Nazareth (Luk 4:24-29).
jer 11:22The retribution of their intended murder shall be in kind; just as in Messiah's case (Psa. 69:8-28).
jer 11:23(Jer 23:12).
the year of . . . visitation--The Septuagint translates, "in the year of their," &c., that is, at the time when I shall visit them in wrath. JEROME supports English Version. "Year" often means a determined time.
He ventures to expostulate with Jehovah as to the prosperity of the wicked, who had plotted against his life (Jer 12:1-4); in reply he is told that he will have worse to endure, and that from his own relatives (Jer 12:5-6). The heaviest judgments, however, would be inflicted on the faithless people (Jer 12:7-13); and then on the nations co-operating with the Chaldeans against Judah, with, however, a promise of mercy on repentance (Jer 12:14-17).