A Commentary, Critical, Practical, and Explanatory on the Old and New Testaments, by Robert Jamieson, A.R. Fausset and David Brown  at sacred-texts.com
jdg 10:1TOLA JUDGES ISRAEL IN SHAMIR. (Jdg 10:1-5)
after Abimelech there arose to defend Israel, Tola--that is, "to save." Deliverance was necessary as well from intestine usurpation as from foreign aggression.
the son of Puah--He was uncle to Abimelech by the father's side, and consequently brother of Gideon; yet the former was of the tribe of Issachar, while the latter was of Manasseh. They were, most probably, uterine brothers.
dwelt in Shamir in mount Ephraim--As a central place, he made it the seat of government.
jdg 10:3Jair, a Gileadite--This judge was a different person from the conqueror of that northeastern territory, and founder of Havoth-jair, or "Jair's villages" (Num 32:41; Deu 3:14; Jos 13:3; Ch1 2:22).
jdg 10:4he had thirty sons that rode on thirty ass colts--This is a characteristic trait of Eastern manners in those early times; and the grant of a village to each of his thirty sons was a striking proof of his extensive possessions. His having thirty sons is no conclusive evidence that he had more than one wife, much less that he had more than one at a time. There are instances, in this country, of men having as many children by two successive wives.
jdg 10:6ISRAEL OPPRESSED BY THE PHILISTINES AND AMMONITES. (Jdg 10:6-9)
the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the Lord--This apostasy seems to have exceeded every former one in the grossness and universality of the idolatry practised.
jdg 10:7Philistines, and . . . the children of Ammon--The predatory incursions of these two hostile neighbors were made naturally on the parts of the land respectively contiguous to them. But the Ammonites, animated with the spirit of conquest, carried their arms across the Jordan; so that the central and southern provinces of Canaan were extensively desolated.
jdg 10:10THEY CRY TO GOD. (Jdg 10:10-15)
The children of Israel cried unto the Lord, saying, We have sinned against thee--The first step of repentance is confession of sin, and the best proof of its sincerity is given by the transgressor, when he mourns not only over the painful consequences which have resulted from his offenses to himself, but over the heinous evil committed against God.
jdg 10:11the Lord said . . . Did I not deliver you from the Egyptians--The circumstances recorded in this and the following verses were not probably made through the high priest, whose duty it was to interpret the will of God.
jdg 10:12Maonites--that is, "Midianites."
jdg 10:16THEY REPENT; GOD PITIES THEM. (Jdg 10:16-18)
they put away the strange gods . . . and served the Lord; and his soul was grieved for the misery of Israel--On their abandonment of idolatry and return to purity of worship, God graciously abridged the term of national affliction and restored times of peace.
jdg 10:17the children of Ammon were gathered together--From carrying on guerrilla warfare, the Ammonites proceeded to a continued campaign. Their settled aim was to wrest the whole of the trans-jordanic territory from its actual occupiers. In this great crisis, a general meeting of the Israelitish tribes was held at Mizpeh. This Mizpeh was in eastern Manasseh (Jos 11:3).