A Commentary, Critical, Practical, and Explanatory on the Old and New Testaments, by Robert Jamieson, A.R. Fausset and David Brown  at sacred-texts.com
isa 54:1THE FRUIT OF MESSIAH'S SUFFERINGS, AND OF ISRAEL'S FINAL PENITENCE AT HER PAST UNBELIEF (Isa 53:6): HER JOYFUL RESTORATION AND ENLARGEMENT BY JEHOVAH, WHOSE WRATH WAS MOMENTARY, BUT HIS KINDNESS EVERLASTING. (Isa. 54:1-17)
Sing--for joy (Zep 3:14).
barren--the Jewish Church once forsaken by God, and therefore during that time destitute of spiritual children (Isa 54:6).
didst not bear--during the Babylonian exile primarily. Secondarily, and chiefly, during Israel's present dispersion.
the children--the Gentiles adopted by special grace into the original Church (Isa 54:3; Isa 49:20-21).
than . . . married wife--than were her spiritual children, when Israel was still a married wife (under the law, before the Babylonian exile), before God put her away [MAURER]. So Paul contrasts the universal Church of the New Testament with the Church of the Old Testament legal dispensation, quoting this very passage (Gal 4:27). But the full accomplishment of it is yet future.
isa 54:2(Isa 49:19-20; Jer 31:31-36, Jer 31:38-39). Thy children shall be so many that thy borders must be extended to contain them.
curtains--the cloth forming the covering of the tent.
spare not--give abundantly the means for the enlargement of the Church (Co2 9:5-7).
cords . . . stakes--The more the tent is enlarged by lengthening the cords by which the cloth covering is fastened to the ground, the more the stakes supporting the tent need to be strengthened; the Church is not merely to seek new converts, but to strengthen those she has in the faith. The image is appropriate, as the tabernacle was the symbol of the old Israelitish Church (see on Isa 33:20).
isa 54:3break forth--rather, "burst forth" with increase; thy offspring shall grow, answering to "thy seed" in the parallel clause.
thy seed--Israel and her children, as distinguished from "the Gentiles."
desolate cities--of Israel (Isa 44:26).
isa 54:4(Isa 41:10, Isa 41:14).
shame of thy youth--Israel's unfaithfulness as wife of Jehovah, almost from her earliest history.
reproach of widowhood--Israel's punishment in her consequent dismissal from God and barrenness of spiritual children in Babylon and her present dispersion (Isa 54:1; Isa 49:21; Jer 3:24-25; Jer 31:19; Hos 2:2-5).
isa 54:5(Isa 62:5; Jer 3:14). That God was Israel's "Maker," both as individuals and as the theocratic kingdom, is the pledge of assurance that He will be her Redeemer (Isa 43:1-3). Hebrew, "makers . . . husbands"; plural for singular, to denote excellency.
of Israel . . . whole earth--Not until He manifests Himself as God of Israel shall He appear as God of the whole earth (Psa 102:13, Psa 102:15-16; Zac 14:5, Zac 14:9).
isa 54:6called--that is, recalled: the prophetic past for the future.
forsaken--that had been forsaken.
when thou--or, "when she was rejected"; one who had been a wife of youth (Eze 16:8, Eze 16:22, Eze 16:60; Jer 2:2) at the time when (thou, or) she was rejected for infidelity [MAURER]. "A wife of youth but afterwards rejected" [LOWTH].
isa 54:7small moment--as compared with Israel's coming long prosperity (Isa 26:20; Isa 60:10). So the spiritual Israel (Psa 30:5; Co2 4:17).
gather thee--to Myself from thy dispersions.
isa 54:8In a little wrath--rather, "In the overflowing of wrath"; as Pro 27:4, Margin, [GESENIUS]. The wrath, though but "for a moment," was overflowing while it lasted.
hid . . . face-- (Isa 8:17; Psa 30:7).
everlasting--in contrast to "for a moment."
isa 54:9I am about to do the same in this instance as in Noah's flood. As I swore then that it should not return (Gen 8:21; Gen 9:11), and I kept that promise, so I swear now to My people, and will perform My promise, that there shall be no return of the deluge of My wrath upon them. LOWTH, on insufficient authority, reads (the same will I do now as), "in the days of Noah."
isa 54:10(Isa 51:6; Psa 89:33-34; Rom 11:29).
covenant of my peace-- (Sa2 23:5). The covenant whereby I have made thee at peace with Me.
isa 54:11not comforted--by anyone; none gave her help or comfort.
lay . . . with fair colours--rather, "lay . . . in cement of vermilion" [LOWTH]. The Hebrew for "fair colors" means stibium, the paint with which Eastern women painted their eyelids and eyelashes (Kg2 9:30). The very cement shall be of the most beautiful color (Rev 21:18-21).
isa 54:12windows--rather, "battlements"; literally, "suns"; applied to battlements from their radiated appearance.
carbuncles--literally, "sparkling gems"; the carbuncle when held to the sun becomes like a burning coal.
all thy borders--rather, "thy whole circuit," consisting of precious stones. The glory of the Church on earth, when the Hebrew Church, according to the original design, shall be the metropolis of Christendom.
isa 54:13Quoted by the Saviour (Joh 6:45), to prove that in order to come to Him, men must be "drawn" by the Father. So Jer 31:34; Mic 4:2; Co1 2:10; Heb 8:10; Heb 10:16; Jo1 2:20.
great . . . peace--generally (Psa 119:165). Specially referring to the peaceful prosperity which shall prevail under Messiah in the latter days (Isa 2:4, Isa 9:6).
isa 54:14righteousness--the characteristic of the reign of Messiah (Isa 11:4-5; Psa 72:2, Psa 72:4; Rev 19:11).
far from oppression, &c.--far from suffering oppression; "for thou shall have nothing to fear."
isa 54:15gather together, &c.--that is, If it should happen that enemies "gather together" against thee (Psa 2:2), they will not have been sent by Me (compare Hos 8:4) as instruments of My wrath (nay, it will be with My disapproval); for "whosoever shall gather together," &c. (Psa 59:3).
fall for thy sake--rather, "shall come over to thy side" [LOWTH]. Literally, "fall to thee" (Jer 21:9; Jer 39:9). To be fully fulfilled to Jerusalem hereafter (Zac 14:16).
isa 54:16The workman that forms "weapons against thee" (Isa 54:17) is wholly in My power, therefore thou needest not fear, having Me on thy side.
for his work--rather, "by his labor [HORSLEY]. "According to the exigencies of his work" [MAURER].
waster to destroy-- (Isa 10:5-7; Isa 37:26-27; Isa 45:1-6). Desolating conquerors who use the "instruments" framed by "the smith." The repetition of the "I" implies, however, something in the latter half of the verse contrasted with the former understand it, therefore, thus: "I have in My power both him who frames arms and him who destroys them (arms)" [ROSENMULLER].
isa 54:17tongue . . . condemn--image from a court of justice. Those who desire to "condemn" thee thou shalt "condemn" (Exo 11:7; Jos 10:21; Psa 64:8; Rom 8:1, Rom 8:33).
righteousness . . . of me-- (Isa 45:24; Isa 46:13). Rather, "(this is) their justification from Me." Their enemies would "condemn" them, but I justify and vindicate them, and so they condemn their enemies.