The Geneva Bible Translation Notes, , at sacred-texts.com
isa 54:1Sing, O (a) barren, thou [that] didst not bear; break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou [that] didst not travail with child: for more [are] the children of the (b) desolate than the children of the married wife, saith the LORD.
(a) After he has declared the death of Christ, he speaks to the Church, because it would feel the fruit of the same, and calls her barren, because in the captivity she was a widow without hope to have any children.
(b) The Church in this her affliction and captivity will bring forth more children, than when she was free, or this may be spoken by admiration, considering the great number that would come from her. Her deliverance under Cyrus was as her childhood, and therefore this was accomplished when she came of age, which was under the gospel.
isa 54:2(c) Enlarge the place of thy tent, and let them extend the curtains of thy habitations: spare not, lengthen thy cords, and strengthen thy stakes;
(c) Signifying that for the great number of children that God would give her, she would seem to lack room to lodge them.
isa 54:4Fear not; for thou shalt not be ashamed: neither be thou confounded; for thou shalt not be put to shame: for thou shalt forget the shame of thy (d) youth, and shalt not remember the reproach of thy (e) widowhood any more.
(d) The afflictions which you suffered at the beginning.
(e) When you were refused for your sins, (Isa 50:1).
isa 54:5For thy (f) Maker [is] thy husband; the LORD of hosts [is] his name; and thy Redeemer the Holy One of Israel; The God of the whole (g) earth shall he be called.
(f) That regenerated you by his Holy Spirit.
(g) His glory will shine through the whole world, which seemed before to be shut up in Judea.
isa 54:6For the LORD hath called thee as a woman forsaken and grieved in spirit, and a (h) wife of youth, when thou wast refused, saith thy God.
(h) As a wife who was forsaken in your youth.
isa 54:9For this [is as] the (i) waters of Noah to me: for [as] I have sworn that the waters of Noah shall no more overflow the earth; so have I sworn that I will not be angry with thee, nor rebuke thee.
(i) As sure as the promise that I made to Noah, that the waters would no longer overflow the earth.
isa 54:11O thou afflicted, tossed with tempest, [and] not comforted, behold, I will lay thy stones with (k) fair colours, and lay thy foundations with sapphires.
(k) By this he declares the excellent estate of the Church under Christ.
isa 54:13And all thy children [shall be] (l) taught from the LORD; and great [shall be] the peace of thy children.
(l) By the hearing of his word and inward moving of his spirit.
isa 54:14In (m) righteousness shalt thou be established: thou shalt be far from oppression; for thou shalt not fear: and from terror; for it shall not come near thee.
(m) In stability and sureness, so that it will stand forever.
isa 54:15Behold, they shall surely assemble, [but] not by (n) me: whoever shall assemble (o) against thee shall fall for thy sake.
(n) And therefore will not prevail.
(o) Meaning, the domestic enemies of the Church, as are the hypocrites.
isa 54:16Behold, I have created the (p) smith that bloweth the coals in the fire, and that bringeth forth an instrument for his work; and I have created the waster to destroy.
(p) Signifying by this that man can do nothing, but so far as God gives power: for seeing that all are his creatures, he must govern and guide them.