Notes on the Bible, by Albert Barnes, , at sacred-texts.com
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 19:10
David fled - This was the beginning of David's life as a fugitive and outcast, though for no "offence or fauIt" of his (Psa 59:3, Prayer Book Version).
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 19:11
Saul's plan was to surround the house at night, and to have David killed as soon as he came abroad unsuspectingly in the morning.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 19:13
An image - "Teraphim" (see the margin), an image, or bust in human form, and as large as life, of a kind of household god, to the worship of which the Israelites, and especially women, were much addicted.
A pillow - It was probably a quilt or blanket of goats' hair and of common use as a bed-covering. Whether Michal drew it over the head of the teraphim, as if for warmth, and so covered it, or whether she disposed it about the head so as to look like hair, is not clear.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 19:17
Why should I kill thee? - To avert Saul's anger from herself, she pretended that David had threatened her life unless she facilitated his escape.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 19:18
No such place as Naioth (or Nevaioth) is known, but the word means "dwellings." Hence, it is considered that Naioth was the name of the collegiate residence of the prophets, in, or just outside, Ramah, to which Samuel removed with David from his own house, for greater safety, owing to the sanctity of the place and company.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 19:20
Samuel standing as appointed - Rather, "as Overseer, or leader."
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 19:22
To a great well - Some large well-known cistern at Sechu, the site of which is uncertain, which Saul passed on his way from Gibeah to Ramah.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 19:24
Naked - i. e., without his robe and other outer garments, but only the shirt. Compare the marginal references.
The whole history affords another instance of the protection of God vouchsafed to His servants, which forms so frequent a topic of the Psalms of David.