Notes on the Bible, by Albert Barnes, , at sacred-texts.com
Surety - The "pledge," or security for payment, which, for example, David was to bring back from his brothers Sa1 17:18. So the word was used in the primitive trade transactions of the early Israelites.
In the warnings against this suretyship, in the Book of Proverbs, we may trace the influence of contact with the Phoenicians. The merchants of Tyre and Zidon seem to have discovered the value of credit as an element of wealth. A man might obtain goods, or escape the pressure of a creditor at an inconvenient season, or obtain a loan on more favorable terms, by finding security. To give such security might be one of the kindest offices which one friend could render to another. Side by side, however, with a legitimate system of credit there sprang up, as in later times, a fraudulent counterfeit. Phoenician or Jewish money-lenders (the "stranger") were ready to make their loans to the spendthrift. He was equally ready to find a companion (the "friend") who would become his surety. It was merely a form, just writing a few words, just "a clasping of the hands" (see the marginal reference) in token that the obligation was accepted, and that was all. It would be unfriendly to refuse. And yet, as the teacher warns his hearers, there might be, in that moment of careless weakness, the first link of a long chain of ignominy, galling, fretting, wearing, depriving life of all its peace. The Jewish law of debt, hard and stern like that of most ancient nations, aright be enforced against him in all its rigour. Money and land might go, the very bed under him might be seized, and his garment torn from his back Pro 20:16; Pro 22:27, the older and more lenient law Exo 22:25-27 having apparently fallen into disuse. he might be brought into a life-long bondage, subject only to the possible relief of the year of jubilee, when the people were religious enough to remember and observe it. His wives, his sons, his daughters might be sharers in that slavery Neh 5:3-5. It was doubtful whether he could claim the privilege which under Exo 21:2 belonged to an Israelite slave that had been bought. Against such an evil, no warnings could be too frequent or to urgent.
Stricken thy hand - The natural symbol of the promise to keep a contract; in this case, to pay another man's debts. Compare Pro 17:18; Pro 22:26; Job 17:3; Eze 17:18.
Or, "If thou art snared ... if thou art taken," etc.
Better, "Do this now, O my son, and free thyself when thou hast come into thy friend's house; go, how thyself down (perhaps "stamp with thy foot," or "hasten"), press hotly upon thy friend. By persuasion, and if need be, by threats, get back the bond which thou hast been entrapped into signing:" The "friend" is, as before, the companion, not the creditor.
The warning against the wastefulness of the prodigal is followed by a warning as emphatic against the wastefulness of sloth. The point of comparison with the ant is not so much the foresight of the insect as its unwearied activity during the appointed season, rebuking man's inaction at a special crisis Pro 6:4. In Pro 30:25, the storing, provident habit of the ant is noticed.
The words express the wonder with which the Hebrew observer looked on the phenomena of insect life. "Guide," better captain, as in Jos 10:24. The Septuagint introduces here a corresponding reference to the industry of the bee.
The similitude is drawn from the two sources of Eastern terror: the "traveler," i. e., "the thief in the night," coming suddenly to plunder; the "armed man," literally "the man of the shield," the armed robber. The habit of indolence is more fatally destructive than these marauders.
A naughty person - literally, "a man of Belial," i. e., a worthless man (see the Deu 13:13 note). This is the portrait of the man who is not to be trusted, whose look and gestures warn against him all who can observe. His speech is tortuous and crafty; his wink tells the accomplice that the victim is already snared; his gestures with foot and hand are half in deceit, and half in mockery.
The duper and the dupe shall share the same calamity.
A new section, but not a new subject. The closing words, "he that soweth discord" (Pro 6:19, compare Pro 6:14), lead us to identify the sketch as taken from the same character. With the recognized Hebrew form of climax (see Pro 30:15, Pro 30:18, Pro 30:24; Amo 1:1-15; 2; Job 5:19), the teacher here enumerates six qualities as detestable, and the seventh as worse than all (seven represents completeness), but all the seven in this instance belong to one man, the man of Belial Pro 6:12.
The thought of Pro 3:3 is carried step further. No outward charm, but the law of obedience, shall give safety to the traveler, when he sleeps or when he wakes.
Compare Psa 119:105.
Evil woman - literally, "woman of evil." In reading what follows, it must be remembered that the warning is against the danger of the sin of the adulterous wife.
Eyelids - Possibly pointing to the Eastern custom of painting the eyes on the outside with kohl so as to give brightness and languishing expression.
The two forms of evil bring, each of them, their own penalty. By the one a man is brought to such poverty as to beg for "a piece of bread" (compare Sa1 2:36): by the other and more deadly sin he incurs a peril which may affect his life. The second clause is very abrupt and emphatic in the original; "but as for a man's wife; she hunts for the precious life."