Notes on the Bible, by Albert Barnes, , at sacred-texts.com
The oil for the lamps of the tabernacle and the meal for the showbread were to be offerings from the Congregation, like the meal for the Pentecostal loaves, Lev 23:17. It appears that the responsibility of keeping up the lights rested on the high priest, but the actual service might be performed, on ordinary occasions, by the common priests. Compare margin reference.
Each cake or loaf of unleavened bread Lev 2:11 was to contain about six pounds and a quarter (see Exo 29:40 note) of fine flour. The material was the same, both in quality and in quantity, with that of each one of the wave-loaves of Pentecost Lev 23:17. In the service of the temple the preparation and arrangement of the cakes was committed to the Levites Ch1 9:32; Ch1 23:29; Ch2 13:11.
Two rows, six on a row - Rather, two piles, six in a pile. On the table, see Exo 25:23-30.
The frankincense as a memorial (like the handful of the meat-offering, Lev 2:2), was most likely cast upon the altar-fire as "an offering made by fire unto the Lord," when the bread was removed from the table on the Sabbath-day Lev 24:8; Sa1 21:6. The frankincense was put into small gold cups, one of which was placed upon each pile of bread. (See Exo 25:23-30 note.)
Being taken from the children of Israel - Each cake represented the offering of a tribe.
See Lev 2:3 note. It could have been only by a stretch of the law that Ahimelech gave a portion of the showbread to David and his men, on the ground that they were free from ceremonial defilement. Sa1 21:4-6; Mat 12:4.
The showbread was a true meat-offering (see Exo 25:29). The special form in which it was offered, especially in its being brought into the tabernacle and in its consisting of twelve loaves, distinguish it as an offering made on behalf of the nation.
The offender may already have been pronounced guilty by the rulers (see Exo 18:21-22), and the case was referred to Moses in order that the punishment might be awarded by the divine decree. No law had as yet been enacted against blasphemy except by implication. See Exo 21:17; Exo 22:28.
Lay their hands upon his head - As a protest against the impiety of the criminal, symbolically laying the guilt upon his head. Compare the washing of hands, Deu 21:6; Mat 27:24.
Let all the congregation stone him - See Lev 20:2 note.
Stranger - i. e. foreigner. See Lev 16:29 note.