Notes on the Bible, by Albert Barnes, , at sacred-texts.com
As in Ezek. 1, the vision of the glory of the Lord, the particulars given identifying the two visions.
He spake - The person enthroned.
The cherub - The particular cherub who was to hand the coals to destroy Psa 120:4; Isa 10:16; Rev 15:8.
On the right side - On the south Eze 47:2. The idolatries had been seen on the north side. On the south stood the "cherubim" ready to receive and bear away the glory of the Lord.
A repetition of Eze 9:3. Now the glory of the Lord had gone up from the cherub to the threshold of the house. Eze 10:4-6 describe what had occurred before the "man went in" Eze 10:3.
The Almighty God - El Shaddai; compare the Gen 17:1 note.
One cherub - The "cherub" who stood next the wheel by the side of which the man stood. The representative of the priestly office now gives up his post of reconciliation, and becomes simply a minister of wrath; another sign that God will turn from Jerusalem.
An explanation following upon the mention of the "hand." It is characteristic of this chapter that the narrative is interrupted by explanatory comments. The "narrative" is contained in Eze 10:1-3, Eze 10:6-7, Eze 10:13, Eze 10:15 (first clause), 18, 19; the other verses contain the "interposed explanations."
The head - Either "the leading wheel which the others followed," or more probably, the head of a cherub (one for all), the description passing from the wheels to the cherubim Eze 10:12.
According to the marginal rendering the present verse refers back to Eze 10:2, Eze 10:6, and tells us that the name "galgal, a rolling thing" (compare Isa 17:13), was given to the wheels in the seer's hearing. But taking Eze 10:14 as a description, and reading Eze 10:15 immediately after Eze 10:13, the meaning is clear. In the hearing Of the seer a voice calls upon the wheels, and, obedient to the call, the cherubim are lifted up and the wheels roll on. The word "galgal" would be better rendered "chariot" instead of "wheel;" "chariot" representing very well the collection of "wheels."
The first face ... - The face of the first was the face of the cherub, and the face of the second was the face of a man, and the third the face of a lion and the fourth the face of an eagle. Of the four faces of each cherub, the seer names only one - the face looking in the direction in which that cherub leads the motion of the chariot. The face of the cherub which presented itself to the seer was that of "an ox." When he looking northward first saw the chariot the "ox-face" was on the left side Eze 1:10. This would make the ox-face look eastward, and it is not unlikely that the man might approach the chariot from the southeastern part of the inner court.
are a repetition of the general description of the nature and connection of the various parts of the vision, and this is the more appropriate as showing why they were regarded as "one living creature" Eze 10:15. The attributes here assigned to them show that they were pervaded by one will - "the spirit of the living creature" (others, as in the margin, "the spirit of life") "was in them."
The cherubim (or chariot) had stood first on the threshold of the temple-door, and there received the glory of the Lord. They then lifted their wings, rose, and left the temple by "the east gate" of the outer court at "the entrance" of which they now for a time stood. It was by the east gate of the outer court that the glory of the Lord returned to the new temple Eze 43:4.
And every one stood - Or, "and" they "stood." The Cheruibim and wheels are viewed as "one living creature."
In this departure of the glory of the Lord from the temple, the seer recognizes for the first time the full meaning of the vision which he had seen on the banks of Chebar Ezek. 1. What he had seen there (did indeed imply that Yahweh had forsaken His house; but now this is made clear. The Glory has left the holy of holies, has appeared in the court, has been enthroned on the Living Four, and with them has departed from the temple. It is now clear that these Four (in form similar to, yet differing from, the cherubim of the temple) are indeed the cherubim, in the midst of whom the Lord dwelleth.