Notes on the Bible, by Albert Barnes, , at sacred-texts.com
Give the house of Haman - Confiscation of goods accompanied public execution in Persia as in other Oriental countries.
His ring - i. e. the royal signet by which the decrees of the government were signed.
Over the house of Haman - Not only the building and the furniture, but the household - the vast train of attendants of all kinds that was attached to the residence of a Persian noble.
Though Haman was dead, his work was not yet undone. The royal decree had gone forth, and, according to Persian notions, could not be directly recalled or reversed Est 8:8. Mordecai did not dare, without express permission from the king, to take any steps even to stay execution. And Esther, being in favor, once more took the initiative.
Write ... as it liketh you ... - (See the Est 1:19 note. Practically, Ahasuerus reversed the "device" of Haman).
Sivan corresponds nearly to our June; it was the second month from the issue of the first edict Est 3:12.
Riders on mules, camels and young dromedaries - Most moderns translate "riders upon coursers and mules, the offspring of mares;" but the words translated "mules" and "mares," are of very doubtful signification, since they scarcely occur elsewhere. The real meaning of the clause must remain doubtful; perhaps the true translation is, "riders upon coursers of the king's stud, offspring of high-bred steeds." So Est 8:14.
This fresh decree allowed the Jews to stand on their defense, and to kill all who attacked them. It has been pronounced incredible that any king would thus have sanctioned civil war in all the great cities of his empire; but some even of the more skeptical critics allow that "Xerxes" might not improbably have done so.
Being hastened - Between Sivan, the third month (June), when the posts went out, and Adar, the twelfth month (March), when the struggle was to take place, the interval would be one of more than 8 months; but all haste was made, with the object of their being no misunderstanding.
See the Est 1:6 note. The "crown" was not a crown like the king's, but a mere golden band or coronet.
A garment - Or, "an inner robe." The tunic or inner robe of the king was of purple, striped with white.
Became Jews - Joined the nation as proselytes, so casting in their lot with them.