Notes on the Bible, by Albert Barnes, , at sacred-texts.com
The Blessing contains:
(1) an Introduction, Deu 33:1-5;
(2) the Benedictions pronounced on the tribes individually, Deut. 33:6-25;
(3) a Conclusion, Deu 33:26-29.
It was no doubt spoken by Moses, probably on the same day and to the same assembly as the Song Deut. 32:1-43, as soon as lie received the reviewed notice of his approaching decease Deu 32:48, and just before he ascended Mount Nebo. Like the Blessing of Jacob Gen. 49, to, which it has an intimate though independent correspondence throughout, it is the solemn farewell of the earthly head of the race. A comparison with Genesis (see the marginal references) will show how the blessings uttered by Moses over the several tribes partly repeat, partly enlarge and supplement, and sometimes modify or even reverse, the predictions of the dying Jacob.
This chapter, in striking contrast with the last, is pervaded by a tone of happy augury; and the total absence of warning and reproof has been rightly noted as indicating that Moses is here speaking of the ideal Israel, of the people of God as they might and would have been but for their perverseness, rather than foretelling what would in fact be the fate and fortunes of the twelve tribes. As the Song sets forth the calamities with which God's justice will visit Israel's fall, so does the Blessing describe the glory and greatness which would from His mercy crown Israel's faithfulness. The Song and the Blessing are therefore correspondent, and mutually supplementary. The form into which the Blessing is thrown exhibits the several tribes cooperating, each according to its special characteristics and circumstances, for the accomplishment of the national mission.
The title "the man of God" in the Old Testament is one who is favored with direct revelations, but not necessarily an official prophet. The occurrence of the title here is no doubt a token that the Blessing was not, as was the Song, transcribed by Moses himself. Compare Deu 31:27.
By "Seir" is to be understood the mountain-land of the Edomites, and by "mount Paran" the range which forms the northern boundary of the desert of Sinai (compare Gen 14:6 note). Thus the verse forms a poetical description of the vast arena upon which the glorious manifestation of the Lord in the giving of the covenant took place.
With ten thousands of saints - Render, from amidst ten thousands of holy ones: literally from myriads of holiness, i. e., holy Angels (compare Zac 14:5). God is represented as leaving heaven where He dwells amidst the host of the Angels Kg1 22:19 and descending in majesty to earth Mic 1:3.
A fiery law - more literally as in the margin, with perhaps an allusion to the pillar of fire Exo 13:21. The word is much disputed.
"The people" are the twelve tribes, not the Gentiles; and his saints refer to God's chosen people just before spoken of. Compare Deu 7:18, Deu 7:21; Exo 19:6; Dan 7:8-21.
He was king - i. e., not Moses but the Lord became king.
Let not his men be few - literally, "a number," i. e., "a small number," such as could be easily counted (compare Gen 34:30 note). While the verse promises that the tribe shall endure and prosper, yet it is so worded as to carry with it a warning. The Reubenites, occupied with their herds and flocks, appear, soon after the days of Joshua, to have lost their early energy, until in later times its numbers, even when counted with the Gadites and the half of Manasseh, were fewer than that of the Reubenites alone at the census of Num. 1 (Compare Ch1 5:18 with Num 1:20.) No judge, prophet, or national hero arose out of this tribe.
The tribe of Simeon, which would according to the order of birth come next, is not here named. This omission is explained by reference to the words of Jacob concerning Simeon Gen 49:7. This tribe with Levi was to he "scattered in Israel." The fulfillment of this prediction was in the case of Levi so ordered as to carry with it honor and blessing; but no such reversal of punishment was granted to Simeon. Rather had this latter tribe added new sins to those which Jacob denounced (compare Num 26:5 note). Accordingly, though very numerous at the Exodus, it had surprisingly diminished before the death of Moses (compare Num 1:22-23 with Num 26:12-14); and eventually it found territory adequate for its wants within the limits of another tribe, Judah. Compare Jos 19:2-9.
Bring him unto his people - Moses, taking up the promise of Jacob, prays that Judah, marching forth at the head of the tribes, might ever be brought back in safety and victory; arm intimates that God would grant help to accomplish this.
Thy holy one - i. e., Levi, regarded as the representative of the whole priestly and Levitical stock which sprang from him. The contrast between the tone of this passage and that of Gen 49:5-7 is remarkable. Though the prediction of Jacob respecting the dispersion of this tribe held good, yet it was so overruled as to issue in honor and reward. The recovery of God's favor is to be traced to the faithfulness with which Moses and Aaron, who came of this tribe, served God in their high offices; and to the zeal and constancy which conspicuous persons of the tribe (e. g. Phinehas, Num 25:11 ff), and the whole tribe itself (compare Exo 32:26), manifested on critical occasions in supporting the leaders of the people. The same reasons led to Levi's being selected for the special service of God in the sanctuary (Deu 10:8 ff, and Num 8:5 ff); and for the office of instructing their brethren in the knowledge of the Law. The events at Massah and Meribah, the one occurring at the beginning, the other toward the end, of the forty years' wandering, serve to represent the whole series of trials by which God proved and exercised the faith and obedience of this chosen tribe.
Who said unto his father and to his mother - Compare Mat 10:37; Luk 14:26.
Smite through the loins - Rather, strike the loins, i. e., the seat of their strength.
He shall dwell between his shoulders - i. e., be supported by God as a son who is carried by his father (compare Deu 1:31). Benjamin was especially beloved of his father Gen 35:18; Gen 44:20; Moses now promises no less love to him from God Himself.
Comparing the words of Moses with those of Jacob, it will be seen that the patriarch dwells with emphasis on the severe conflicts which Joseph, i. e., Ephraim and Manasseh, would undergo (compare Gen 49:23-24); while the lawgiver seems to look beyond, and to behold the two triumphant and established in their power.
Rather: "The first-born of his" (i. e. Joseph's) "bullock is his glory": the reference being to Ephraim, who was raised by Jacob to the honors of the firstborn (Gen 48:20, and is here likened to the firstling of Joseph's oxen, i. e., of Joseph's offspring. The ox is a common emblem of power and strength.
Zebulun possessed a commodious sea-shore and the fisheries of the Lake of Tiberias: and was therefore to thrive by commerce, and to rejoice in his "going out," i. e., in his mercantile enterprises. Issachar possessed a fertile inland district, and would therefore dwell at home and prosper in agriculture. Both tribes distinguished themselves in the contest with Jabin (compare Jdg 5:14-15, Jdg 5:18): and of Zebulun it is particularly noted that it produced the officers and tacticians who led and marshalled the host which vanquished Sisera (see Jdg 5:14, and compare Ch1 12:33).
Unto the mountain - Compare Exo 15:17.
Sacrifices of righteousness - Sacrifices offered in a righteous spirit, and therefore well pleasing to God (compare Psa 4:5; Psa 51:19).
Treasures hid in the sand - The riches of the seas in general. However, it is noteworthy that the sand of these coasts was especially valuable in the manufacture of glass; and glass was a precious thing in ancient times (compare Job 28:17). The murex from which the highly-prized purple dye was extracted, was also found here. A typical reference to the conversion of the Gentiles is strongly suggested by Isa 60:5-6, Isa 60:16; Isa 66:11-12.
i. e., Blessed be God who shall grant to Gad a spacious territory. Compare the blessing of Shem Gen 9:26.
With the crown - Rather, yea, the crown. The warlike character of this tribe is shown by their leading the van in the long campaigns of Joshua (compare Jos 4:12-13; Jos 22:1-4). Compare also Ch1 5:18-22; Ch1 12:8 ff, and the acts of Jehu, the Gadite, in 2 Kings 9; 10.
The first fruits of the conquest made by Israel were assigned to Gad and Reuben by Moses, at their own request.
Because ... seated - Render, because there was the leader's portion reserved, i. e., there was reserved the fitting portion for Gad as a leader in war.
And he came ... - i. e., he joined the other leaders to fulfill the commands of God respecting the conquest of Canaan (compare Num 32:17, Num 32:21, Num 32:32; Jos 1:14). Moses regards the promise of the Gadites to do this as already redeemed.
Dan shall be like a lion which leaps forth from his covert in Bashan. Compare Sol 4:8.
Satisfied with favor - Compare Gen 49:21 and note.
The west and the south - i. e., taking the words as referring not to geographical position but to natural characteristics, "the sea and the sunny district." The possession of Naphtali included nearly the whole west coast of the Sea of Galilee, the Lake of Merom, the modern Bahr el Hulch, and the well watered district near the springs of Jordan. It contained some of the grandest scenery and some of the most fertile land in Palestine. Josephus speaks of the shore of Gennesaret as "an earthly paradise;" and Porter describes it as "the garden of Palestine." The modern name for this district, "land of good tidings," is significant.
Rather, "Blessed above the sons" (i. e. of Jacob-most blessed among the sons of Jacob) "be Asher; let him he the favored one of his brethren," i. e., the one favored of God. The plenty with which this tribe should be blessed is described under the figure of dipping the foot in oil (compare the marginal reference).
The strength and firmness of Asher is as if he were shod with iron and brass (compare Rev 1:15). The territory of this tribe probably contained iron and copper. Compare the marginal reference.
As thy days, so shall thy strength be - i. e., "thy strength" (some prefer "thy rest") "shall be continued to thee as long as thou shalt live: thou shalt never know feebleness and decay."
Rather, There is none like unto God, O Jeshurun! See marginal reference and note.
Thy refuge - Rather, "dwellingplace." Compare Psa 90:1; Psa 91:9.
The fountain of Jacob shall be upon a land of corn and wine - The King James Version does not preserve the symmetry of the clauses. Render it: "Israel shall dwell in safety; alone shall the fountain of Jacob be" (compare Psa 68:26; Isa 48:1); "in a land," etc.
Be found liars unto thee - Perhaps rather, "cringe before thee." The verb means to show a feigned or forced obedience: see the marginal references.
Tread upon their high places - i. e., occupy the commanding positions in their land, and so have it in subjection.