Notes on the Bible, by Albert Barnes, , at sacred-texts.com
The rejection of Israel and the desolation of the promised inheritance were not to be the end of God's dispensations. The closing words of the address therefore are words of comfort and promise. Compare marginal reference and Deu 4:29 ff; Kg1 8:46-50.
The chastisements of God would lead the nation to repent, and thereupon God would again bless them.
Will turn thy captivity - Will change or put an end to thy state of captivity or distress (compare Psa 14:7; Psa 85:2; Jer 30:18). The rendering of the Greek version is significant; "the Lord will heal thy sins."
The promises of this and the following verses had no doubt their partial fulfillment in the days of the Judges; but the fact that various important features are repeated in Jer 32:37 ff, and in Eze 11:19 ff, Eze 34:13 ff, Eze 36:24 ff, shows us that none of these was regarded as exhausting the promises. In full analogy with the scheme of prophecy we may add that the return from the Babylonian captivity has not exhausted their depth. The New Testament takes up the strain (e. g. in Rom. 11), and foretells the restoration of Israel to the covenanted mercies of God. True these mercies shall not be, as before, confined to that nation. The "turning again of the captivity" will be when Israel is converted to Him in whom the Law was fulfilled, and who died "not for that nation only," but also that he might "gather together in one the children of God that were scattered abroad" Joh 11:51-52. Then shall there be "one fold and one shepherd" Joh 10:16. But whether the general conversion of the Jews shall be accompanied with any national restoration, any recovery of their ancient prerogatives as the chosen people; and further, whether there shall be any local replacement of them in the land of their fathers, may be regarded as of "the secret things" which belong unto God Deu 29:29; and so indeed our Lord Himself teaches us Act 1:6-7.
Circumcise thine heart - Compare Deu 10:16 note; Jer 32:39; Ezra 11:19.
Ignorance of the requirements of the law cannot be pleaded Deu 30:10-14; hence, Deu 30:15-20 life and death, good and evil, are solemnly set before the people for their own choice; and an earnest exhortation to choose the better part concludes the address.
Deu 30:11-14. "The righteousness which is of faith" is really and truly described in these words of the Law; and, under Paul's guidance (see marginal references) we affirm was intended so to be. For the simplicity and accessibility which Moses here attributes to the Law of God neither is nor can be experimentally found in it except through the medium of faith; even though outwardly and in the letter that Law be written out for us so "that he may run that readeth," and be set forth in its duties and its sanctions as plainly as it was before the Jews by Moses. The seeming ease of the commandment, and yet its real impossibility to the natural man, form part of the qualifications of the Law to be our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ.
Not hidden from thee - Rather, not too hard for thee, as in Deu 17:8.
Neither is it far off - Compare Luk 17:21.
The paraphrase of this verse in the Jerusalem Targum is noteworthy, and should be compared with Paul's rendering in Rom 10:7 : "Neither is the law beyond the great sea, that thou shouldest say, Oh that we had one like Jonah the prophet who could descend into the depths of the sea and bring it to us!"
In thy mouth, and in, thy heart - Compare Deu 6:6; Deu 11:18-20.
That thou mayest love the Lord - Compare Deu 6:5. Love stands first as the essential and only source of obedience.
He is thy life - Or, "that" (i. e., "to love the Lord") "is thy life;" i. e., the condition of thy life and of its prolongation in the promised land. Compare Deu 4:40; Deu 32:47.